A Handbook of Seed Testing

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Author: Dr. J. Renugadevi, Dr. P. Srimathi, Dr. R. R. Renganayaki
Language: English
ISBN/ISSN: 9788177543926
Published on: 2011-01
Hardcover

Seed is the unique biological input in agriculture, which imbibes in it the productivity potential of the crop. This potential in terms of both quantity and quality is realisable by the timely use of other inputs. It is therefore important to plan and produce adequate quantities of good quality seed to realise enhanced agricultural production and higher income to farmers. The use of high quality seed will enable to reduce the gap between potential and actual yield of all crops.
Seed industry in India has made great strides especially during last twenty years. The Government of India through its policy initiatives has encouraged development of this industry. A lot of attention has been paid to organizational, legislative and financing aspects, resulting in enhanced seed multiplication. Today, after the introduction of genetically modified crops, the Seed Industry has acquired a paradigm shift.
This situation warrants proper functioning of effective quality control system to assure the quality of the seeds through standard seed analysis system. In this view knowledge on recent approaches in seed testing is highly essential for a seed men, seed testing and seed law enforcement officials and seed scientists. Keeping this in mind, the book, "A hand book of seed testing' designed clearly, explains the scientific methods of analysing different seed quality traits. The book details procedures of routine seed testing methods and recent approaches in seed testing.



1. Introduction
2. History of Seed Testing
2.1. Central Seed Testing Laboratory
2.2. International Organizations involved in Seed Testing,
2.2.1. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA)
2.2.2. Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA)
2.2.3. The Society of Commercial Seed Technologists (SCST)
3. Principles and Procedures of Seed Testing
3.1. Routing of the Seed Sample in Seed Testing
3.2. Laboratory
3.2.1. Sequence of Seed Quality Testing in STL
4. Sampling
4.1. Objectives of Sampling
4.2. Classification of Samples
4.3. Types of Samples Registered in STL
4.4. Sampling Procedures
4.4.1. Stick or Sleeve Type Trier (Bag Trier)
4.4.2. Bin Sampler
4.4.3. Nobbe Trier
4.4.4. Sampling by Hand
4.5. Sampling Intensity
4.6. Methods of Obtaining Primary Samples
4.7. Method of Preparing Composite Samples / Submitted Samples
4.8. Despatch of Submitted Sample
4.9. Precautions in Sampling
4.10. Sample Identification
4.11. Receiving Samples and Precaution to be taken
4.11.1. Entering Samples
4.11.2. Registration
4.11.3. Registration Method
4.11.4. The Details in the Register
4.12. Storage of Sample
4.13. Sampling in Laboratory
4.14. Mixing and Dividing Samples
4.14.1. Mechanical Mixing and Dividing
4.14.2. Objective of Mechanical Dividing
4.14.3. Apparatus used in Mixing and Dividing
4.14.3.1. Conical or Boener Divider
4.14.3.2. Soil Divider (Riffle Divider)
4.14.3.3. Centrifugal or Garnet Divider
4.14.3.4. Random Cup Method
4.14.3.5. Spoon and Spatula Method
4.14.3.6. Modified Halving Method
4.14.3.7. Manual Method - Hand Halving
5. Purity Analysis
5.1. Importance of Physical Purity Analysis
5.2. Objective of Purity Test
5.3. Components of Pure Seed
5.4. Instruments used in Seed Purity Analysis
5.4.1. Seed Blower
5.4.2. Purity Workboard Diapanascope
5.5. Purity Analysis Procedure
5.5.1. Method of Purity Test
5.5.1.1. Purity Separation
5.5.1.2. Methodology
5.5.1.3. Check or Duplicate Tests
5.5.1.4. Determination of other Seed by Number / Kilogram
5.5.1.5. Determination of Seeds of other Distinguishable Varieties
5.6. Sources of Error in Purity Analysis
5.6.1. Moisture
5.6.2. Computing Error
6. Seed Weight Determination
7. Moisture Test
7.1. Seed Moisture Analysis Method
7.1.1. Direct Method
7.1.1.1. Grinding Requirements
7.1.1.2. Pre-drying Requirements
7.1.1.3. Tolerance
7.1.2. Indirect Method
7.1.2.1. Universal Moisture Meter
8. Germination Test
8.1. Percentage of Germination
8.2. Requirements for Germination
8.2.1. Substrata (or) Media
8.2.1.1. Germination Paper
8.3. Water
8.4. Temperature
8.5. Light
8.6. Procedures for Conducting Germination Test
8.6.1. Paper Method (Top or between Paper) .
8.6.2. Roll Towel Method
8.6.3. Inclined Plate Method
8.6.4. Sand Method
8.6.5. Soil
8.7. Germination Equipments and Apparatus
8.7.1. Counting Boards
8.7.2. Pneumatic Ozr Vacuum Seed Counter
8.7.3. Automatic Seed Counter
8.7.4. Impression Board
8.7.5. Germination Cabinet
8.7.6. Room Germinator or Walk-in Germinator
8.8. Maintenance of Germination Room or Cabinet
8.9. Special Treatments for Germination
8.10. Seedling Evaluation and Reporting Result
8.10.1. Classification of Seedlings
8.10.1.1. Normal Seedlings
8.10.1.2. Abnormal Seedlings
8.10.2. Reporting Results
8.10.3. Tolerance
8.10.4. Pure Live Seeds (PLS)
9. Viability Test
9.1. Tetrazolium Test / Quick Viability Test
9.1.1. Principle
9.1.2. Methodology
9.1.2.1. Conditioning and Preparing
9.1.2.2. Exposure of Tissues for Staining..
9.1.2.3. Preparation of Solution
9.1.2.4. Removal of Pigments and Mucus Hardening
9.1.2.5. Staining of Seeds
9.1.3. Evaluation and Interpretation
9.1.4. Merits
9.1.5. Demerits
9.2. Vital colouring Methods
9.3. Enzyme Activity Methods
9.4. Conductivity Test
9.5. Excised Embryo Test
9.6. X-ray Test
9.6.1. Principle
9.6.2. Procedure
9.6.3. Evaluation
10. Vigour Test
10.1. Principle
10.2. Characteristics of a Seed Vigour Test
10.3. Types of Seed Vigour Tests
10.3.1. Physical Test
10.3.1.1. Seed Size / Weight / Colour
10.3.1.2. Radiographic Analysis of Seeds ..
10.3.2. Physiological Test
10.3.2.1. Germination Test
10.3.2.2. Field Emergence
10.3.2.3. Seedling Growth and Evaluation Tests
10.3.3. Bio Chemical Tests
10.3.3.1. Tetrazolium Test
10.3.3.2. Electrical Conductance of Seed
10.3.3.3. Enzyme Test
10.3.3.4. Respiration Test
10.3.4. Stress Test
10.3.4.1. Accelerated Ageing Test
10.3.4.2. Temperature Stress Test
10.3.4.3. Osmotic Stress Test
10.3.4.4. Exhaustion Test
10.3.4.5. Brick Gravel Test
10.3.4.6. Paper Piercing Test
10.3.4.7. Mobilization Efficiency (ME)
10.4. Control Samples in Vigour Testing
10.4.1. Use of Control Samples
10.4.2. Control Seed Lot Selection
10.4.3. Control Sample Storage and Maintenance
10.4.4. Seed Moisture of Control Samples
10.5. Interpretation of Seed Vigour Test Results
11. Seed Dormancy
11.1. Dormancy Breaking Treatments
11.1.1. Scarification
11.1.2. Manual / Physical Scarification
11.1.3. Soaking in Cold or Hot Water
11.1.4. Mechanical Scarification
11.1.5. Acid Scarification
11.1.6. Bioscarification
11.1.7. Temperature Treatments
11.1.8. Scorching
11.1.9. Warm Stratification
11.1.10. Cold Stratification
11.1.11. Electrical /Magnetic / Radio-frequency Treatment
11.2. Advantages of Dormancy
11.3. Disadvantages
12. Seed Health Test
12.1. Methods for Detection of Fungal Infection in Seeds
12.1.1. Conventional Techniques for Detection
12.1.1.1. Direct Examination
12.2. Detection of Seed Borne Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
12.2.1. Detection Methods
12.2.1.1. Examination of Dry Seeds
12.2.1.2. 'Growing on' Test
12.2.1.3. Isolation in Agar Medium
12.2.1.4. Indicator Plant
12.2.1.5. Dome Method
12.2.1.6. Bacteriophage Method-
12.2.1.7. Serological Technique
12.3. Detection of Seed Borne Virus
12.3.1. Detection Techniques
12.3.1.1. Dry Examination
12.3.1.2. Biological Test
13. Cultivar Purity Test
13.1. Weight of Submitted Sample
13.2. Examination of Seed
13.2.1. Examination of Seeds using Image Analysis System
13.2.1.1. Data Measurement
13.3. Colour Reaction or Response of Seeds to Chemical Test
13.3.1. Phenol Test
13.3.2. Modified Phenol Test
13.3.3. Peroxidase Test
13.3.4. Potassium Hydroxide Test
13.3.5. Examination of Seedlings
13.4. Field Plot or Grow-out Test
13.5. Bio chemical Method
13.5.1. Merits
13.5.2. Demerits
13.5.3. Methodology
13.6. Molecular Methods
13.6.1. DNA Profiling
13.6.2. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
13.6.2.1. Merits
13.6.2.2. Demerits
13.6.3. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
13.6.4. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
13.6.4.1. Merits
13.6.4.2. Demerits
13.7. Microsatellites
13.7.1. Methodology and Visualization
13.7.1.1. Merits
13.7.1.2. Demerits
13.8. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)
13.8.1. Merits
14. Testing of Pelleted / Coated Seed
14.1. Definitions
14.2. Sampling
14.2.1. Size of the Lot
14.2.2. Sampling Intensity
14.2.3. Size of Submitted Sample
14.2.4. Drawing and Disposal of Submitted Sample
14.2.5. Size of Working Sample
14.2.6. Obtaining the Working Sample
14.3. Purity Analysis
14.3.1. Definitions
14.3.2. Procedure
14.3.3. Verification of Species
14.3.4. Purity Test for Depelleted / Decoated Seeds .
14.3.5. Calculation and Expression of Results
14.3.6. Determination of Number of other Seeds
14.4. Germination Test
14.4.1. Materials
14.4.2. Procedure
14.4.3. Duration of Test
14.4.4. Seedling Evaluation
14.4.5. Multiple Seed Structure
14.4.6. Calculation and Reporting Results
14.5. Weight Determination and Size Grading of Pelleted Seeds
14.6. Certificates
14.6.1. Reporting Results
15. Testing of Tree and Shrub Seeds
15.1. Seed Sampling
15.2. Purity Analysis
15.3. Germination Test
16. Tolerances in Seed Testing
16.1. Basic Principles
16.2. Application of Tolerances
16.3. Uses of Tolerances
17. Modelling of a Seed Testing Laboratory
17.1. Building
17.2. Furnishing of the Building
17.2.1. Equipment
17.2.2. Moisture Unit
17.2.3. Purity Section
17.2.4. Germination Section
18. References


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