A Pictorial Guide to Paleontology - Pterosaurs

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Author: Yang Yang & Zhao Chuang
Language: Chinese and English bilingual
ISBN/ISSN: 9787535778291
2014-01;  Hardcover

A Pictorial Guide to Paleontology - Pterosaurs, Skeletal and reconstructions of some pterosaurs
  1. What is the Pterosauria?
  The Pterosauria is a group of flying reptiles, and is also the first group of fying vertebrates. Its name means “winged lizards”. The Pterosauria belongs to the Archosauria within the Sauropsida, and is more closely related to the Dinosauria and Crocodylia.
  Pterosaurs have peculiar looks. Their wings are constituted by patagia (flight membranes) that consist of “skin” (i.e., wing-fibers), muscles, and other soft tissues. The wide patagia extend from the sides of body to the extremely long fourth fingers. The current evidence indicates that many pterosaurs had “hair” (or“pycnofibres”) on their skins.
  Most of the early pterosaurs had long tails and completely toothed jaws whereas the later pterosaurs had much shorter tails and many of them had no teeth.
  The Pterosauria spanned from the Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous, living almost throughout the entire Mesozoic. They were truly the rulers of the Mesozoic skies.
  In the long course of its evolution, some members of the Pterosauria became gigantic with a wing span over 10 meters wide, almost the size of a small airplane. However, this does not mean all pterosaurs were so huge.
  In fact, among 120 known pterosaur genera, only 4% of them are with a wing span over 10 meters whereas 37% of them have a wing span less than 1.5 meters. In other words, most pterosaurs are not so big, generally with a wing span between 1.5 and 4 meters .
  
  2. Classification of the Pterosauria
  Although there are many species in the Pterosauria, its classification is relatively clearer compared to that of dinosaurs. The Pterosauria is currently divided into two major groups: the Rhamphorhynchoidea and Pterodactyloidea.
  The Rhamphorhynchoidea are the more primitive forms of the Pterosauria, and l ived from the Late Triassic to the Late Jurassic. They have toothed jaws, a long tail, and most of them have no crest on the head. They nclude the Dimorphodontidae, Anurognathidae, Campylognathoididae, and Rhamphorhynchidae.
  The Pterodactyloidea are more advanced, and first appeared in the Middle Jurassic and lived throughout the Late Cretaceous. With shorter tail, many of them have no teeth, and there are obvious crests on the head. They can be divided into the following superfamilies: the Arehaeopterodaetyloidea, and the Dsungaripteroidea.These two superfamilies are further divided into many families.
In addition to these two suborders, i .e. , the Rhamphorhynchoidea and Pterodactyloidea, there is a peculiar family, the Wukongopteridae, whose systematic position is not yet clear. The Wukongopteridae shares some characters with both the Rhamphorhynchoidea and Pterodactyloidea. This has led some paleontologists to consider that the Wukongopteridae may represent transitional forms between the Rhamphorhynchoidea and Pterodactyloidea, and thus should not be put into either of the two suborders.
  
  3. Characteristics of the Pterosauria
  The Pterosauria has a unique set of skeletal structures, which enable them to have powerful fying capacities. To better understand the Pterosauria, we must have a firm grasp of their skele
 



前言Preface 013
翼龙Pterosaurs 021
翼龙目 Pterosauria
喙嘴龙亚目 Rhamphorhynchoidea
长爪双型齿翼龙Dimorphodon macronyx (Buckland, 1829) Owen, 1859 032

蛙嘴龙科(无尾颌翼龙科)Anurognathidae
阿氏蛙嘴龙Anurognathus ammoni D?derlein, 1923 036
飞翔蛙颌翼龙Batrachognathus volans Ryabinin, 1948 040
弯齿树翼龙Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus Ji et Ji, 1999 044
宁城热河翼龙Jeholopterus ningchengensis Wang et al., 2002 048

曲颌翼龙科 Campylognathoididae
冠头奥地利翼龙Austriadactylus cristatus Dalla Vecchia et al., 2002 052
奇氏曲颌翼龙Campylognathoides zitteli Plieninger, 1894 056

双型齿翼龙科 Dimorphodontidae
兰氏真双型齿翼龙Eudimorphodon ranzii Zambelli, 1973 060
谢萨普拉纳空枝翼龙Caviramus schesaplanensis Fr?bisch et Fr?bisch, 2006 064
罗氏卡尼亚指翼龙Carniadactylus rosenfeldi Dalla Vecchia, (1995) 2009 068

喙嘴龙科 Rhamphorhynchidae
威氏翼手喙龙Pterorhynchus wellnhoferi Czerkas et Ji, 2002 072
明氏喙嘴龙Rhamphorhynchus muensteri (Goldfuss, 1831) Meyer, 1847 076
五彩丝绸翼龙Sericipterus wucaiwanensis Andres et al., 2010 080
李氏凤凰翼龙Fenghuangopterus lii Lü et al., 2010 084
粗喙船颌翼龙Scaphognathus crassirostris (Goldfuss, 1831) Wagner, 1861 088
多毛魔鬼翼龙Sordes pilosus Sharov, 1971 092
珍氏抓颌龙Harpactognathus gentryii Carpenter et al., 2003 096
加勒比天王翼龙Cacibupteryx caribensis Gasparini et al., 2004 100
强壮建昌颌翼龙Jianchangnathus robustus Cheng et al., 2012 104

悟空翼龙科Wukongopteridae
赵氏建昌翼龙Jianchangopterus zhaoianus Lü et al., 2011 108
长头狭鼻翼龙Angustinaripterus longicephalus He,Yang et Shu, 1983 112
潘氏长城翼龙Changchengopterus pani Lü, 2009 116
李氏悟空翼龙Wukongopterus lii Wang et al., 2009 120
模块达尔文翼龙Darwinopterus modularis Lü et al., 2010 124
中国鲲鹏翼龙Kunpengopterus sinensis Wang et al., 2010 128

翼手龙亚目 Pterodactyloidea
隐居森林翼龙Nemicolopterus crypticus Wang et al., 2008 134

古翼手龙超科 Arehaeopterodaetyloidea
翼手龙科 Pterodactylidae
古老翼手龙Pterodactylus antiquus (Cuvier, 1809) S?mmerring, 1812 138

梳颌翼龙科 Ctenochasmatidae
庆阳环河翼龙Huanhepterus quingyangensis Dong, 1982 142
长指鸢翼龙Elanodactylus prolatus Andres et Ji, 2008 146
邱氏滤齿翼龙Pterofiltrus qiui Jiang et Wang, 2011 150
古氏南方翼龙Pterodaustro guinazui Bonaparte, 1969 152
罗氏梳颌翼龙Ctenochasma roemeri Meyer, 1852 156

高卢翼龙科 Dsungaripteridae
苏维汇鹅喙翼龙Cycnorhamphus suevicus (Quenstedt, 1855) Seeley, 1870 160

北方翼龙科 Boreopteridae
长喙振元翼龙Zhenyuanopterus longirostris Lü, 2010 164

德国翼龙科 Germanodactylidae
脊饰德国翼龙Germanodactylus cristatus (Wiman,1925) Young, 1964 168
威氏诺曼底翼龙Normannognathus wellnhoferi Buffetaut, 1998 172

准噶尔翼龙超科 Dsungaripteroidea
无齿翼龙科 Pteranodontidae
长头无齿翼龙Pteranodon longiceps Marsh, 1865 176

夜翼龙科 Nyctosauridae
纤细夜翼龙Nyctosaurus gracilis Marsh, 1876 180

准噶尔翼龙科 Dsungaripteridae
魏氏准噶尔翼龙Dsungaripterus weii Young, 1964 184

朝阳翼龙科 Chaoyangopteridae
张氏朝阳翼龙Chaoyangopterus zhangi Wang et Zhou, 2003 188

古神翼龙科 Tapejaridae
古神翼龙亚科 Tapejarinae
董氏中国翼龙Sinopterus dongi Wang et Zhou, 2003 192
威氏古神翼龙Tapejara wellnhoferi Kellner, 1989 196
帝王雷神翼龙Tupandactylus imperator Kellner et Campos, (1997) 2007 200

掠海翼龙亚科 Thalassodrominae
塞特掠海翼龙Thalassodromeus sethi Kellner et Campos, 2002 202
长冠妖精翼龙Tupuxuara longicristatus Kellner et Campos, 1988 206

神龙翼龙科 Azhdarchidae
巨怪哈特兹哥翼龙Hatzegopteryx thambema Buffetaut, Grigorescu et Csiki, 2002 210
娇小蒙大拿神翼龙Montanazhdarcho minor Padian et al., 1995 212
毛里塔尼亚磷矿翼龙Phosphatodraco mauritanicus Suberbiola et al., 2003 216
撒哈拉长生鸟翼龙Alanqa saharica Ibrahim et al., 2010 220
临海浙江翼龙Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis Cai et Wei, 1994 222
诺氏风神翼龙Quetzalcoatlus northropi Lawson, 1975 226
巨嘴但丁翼龙Daitingopterus rhamphastinus Matzke et al., 2004 230

帆翼龙科 Istiodactylidae
玲珑塔古帆翼龙Archaeoistiodactylus linglongtaensis Lü et Fucha, 2010 234

鸟掌龙科 Ornithocheiridae
恐惧塞阿拉翼龙Cearadactylus atrox Leonardi et Borgomanero, 1985 236
三微齿捻船头翼龙Caulkicephalus trimicrodon Steel et al., 2005 240
道氏亚瑟翼龙Arthurdactylus conandoylei Frey et Martill, 1994 244
卡氏科罗拉多斯翼龙Coloborhynchus cuvieri Owen, 1874 248
阿拉里皮巴西翼龙Brasileodactylus araripensis Kellner, 1984 252

古魔翼龙科 Anhangueridae
比氏古魔翼龙Anhanguera blittersdorffi Campos et Kellner, 1985 256
顾氏辽宁翼龙Liaoningopterus gui Wang et Zhou, 2003 260

疑似属种 Doubtfulspecies
金刚山义县翼龙Yixianopterus jingangshanensis Lü et al., 2006 264
刘氏宁城翼龙Ningchengopterus liuae Lü, 2009 278

索引 Index 272





翼龙 
1.什么是翼龙目
我们通常说翼龙其实指的是翼龙目(Pterosauria),是一类能够飞行的爬行动物,也是第一类能够飞行的脊椎动物,其名字的含义为“有翼的蜥蜴”。翼龙目属于蜥形纲(Sauropsida)下的初龙类(Archosauria),与恐龙(Dinosauria)和鳄类有着较近的亲缘关系。
翼龙目的形象非常特别,它的双翼是由皮肤、肌肉和其他软组织构成的翼膜,宽大的翼膜由身体两侧延展到它极长的第IV指上。目前已经有证据表明很多翼龙目成员皮肤上覆盖有“毛发”。
早期的翼龙目成员大多都拥有长长的尾巴,颌部长满牙齿,而较晚期物种的尾部则大大缩短,其中很大一部分没有牙齿。
翼龙目的生存年代从三叠纪晚期开始一直延续到白垩纪晚期,几乎跨越了整个中生代,是名副其实的天空统治者。
在漫长的演化过程中,翼龙目家族出现了翼展超过10米的巨型个体,相当于今天翱翔于天空的小型飞机,不过,这并不意味着翼龙目家族全部都是大个子。
事实上,在目前发现的超过120个的翼龙属中,翼展超过10米的仅仅占到所发现属种的4%,而翼展小于1.5米的占到37%。也就是说大部分翼龙家族成员的个体实际上都不是很大,它们的翼展通常都在1.5米以上,4米以下。
2.翼龙目的分类
翼龙目的属种虽然繁多,但是相较于恐龙,它们的分类倒是比较清晰。翼龙目目前被分为两大类群:喙嘴龙亚目(Rhamphorhynchoidea)和翼手龙亚目(Pterodactyloidea)。
喙嘴龙亚目代表翼龙目的原始类型,它们生存于晚三叠世到晚侏罗世,具有颌部有牙、尾巴较长的特点,大多数成员没有冠饰。其下分为双型齿翼龙科(Dimorphodontidae)、蛙嘴龙科(Anurognathidae)、曲颌翼龙科(Campylognathoididae)、喙嘴龙科(Rhamphorhynchidae)。
翼手龙亚目则较为进步,它们从中侏罗世出现,一直生存到晚白垩世。具有尾巴缩短的特点,很多类型缺乏牙齿,头顶上具有明显冠饰。其下分为古翼手龙超科(Arehaeopterodaetyloidea)及准噶尔翼龙超科(Dsungaripteroidea),在这两个超科之下又细分成众多的科。
另外在分类中悟空翼龙科(Wukongopteridae)最为特别,它兼具了喙嘴龙亚目和翼手龙亚目的特点。一部分古生物学家认为它们是喙嘴龙亚目向翼手龙亚目的过渡属种,应该独立于喙嘴龙亚目和翼手龙亚目之外,但是目前还没有确定。


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