Marine Ecosystems of North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Price: $77.00


Author: Chen Bin
Language: English
ISBN/ISSN: 9787030590664
Published on: 2018-12

Due to the high marin biodiversity in North Slawesi , the Bitung Marine Eological Station was selected as the join ecological station by RCO-LIPI and the Third institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (TIO-SOA)  to study the tropical marine ecosystem. Under the support of Department of International Cooperation, SOA, the projects “China-Indonesia Ecological Station Establishment and Marine Biodiversity Investigation inNorth Sulawesi Sea (2012-2013)”and the China Indonesia Maritime Cooperation Fund project"China- Indonesia Bitung Joint Ecological Station (2014 -2017)" were carry out around theBitung Station. The purpose of these project is to study tropical marine ecosystem and theeffects of climate change, comparing the biodiversity between China and Indonesia, anddeveloping ecosystem-based management. So that to improve the ability of both sides in thefield of research and management of marine biodiversity.
Under the firm support of SOA and LIPI, six comprehensive joint ecological surveys and eight specific joint surveys have been successfully completed in North Sulawesi sea from 2012 to2017.These surveys covered most of aspects of tropical marine ecosystems, such as coral, sponge,mangrove, seagrass, nekton, plankton, benthos, micobes, hydrology and environmental chemistry.It may provide good foundation to learn about and protect the structure and function of tropicalmarine ecosystems in the CTI region.

Chapter I Introductio  1

 1.1 Background of the study areas  1
 1.2 The cooperatioproject 2
 1.3 Investigatioareas iNorth Sulawesi 3
  References 5

Chapter II Geographical and Hydrological Conditio6

 2.1 Geomorphology of North Sulawesi Sea 6
 2.2 The Field observations and subsurface mooring system (SMS) 10
 2.3 Water mass features isoutherand northerLembeh Strait 11
 2.4 Current characteristics 16
 2.5 Conclusions 18
 References 18

Chapter III Mangrove Ecosystem 20

3.1 Introductio 20
3.2 Mangrove munities iKema,Pintu Kota and Likupang 21
3.3 Benthos diversity iKema,Teremaal,Likupang and Wori 26
3.4 Soil environments iKema and North Minahasa mangroves 33
3.5 Conclusions 38
References 39

Chapter IV Seagrass Ecosystem 43

 4.1 Introductio43
 4.2 Soil environment iseagrass meadows 45
 4.3 Seagrass diversity iNorth Sulawesi 48
 4.4 Benthos diversity iseagrass meadows 54
 4.5 Fish diversity iseagrass meadows 59
 4.6 Food source of seagrass fishes and benthos 65
 4.7 Conclusions 70
 References 71

Chapter V Coral Reef Ecosystem 75

 5.1 Introductio75
 5.2 Coral diversity iLembeh Strait 77
 5.3 Sponge diversity iLembeh Strait 81
 5.4 Reef fish diversity iLembeh Strait 82
 5.5 Geic diversity of fishes and bacterium 97
 5.6 Food web of coral reef ecosystem iLembeh Strait 103
 5.7 Conclusions 107
 References 107

Chapter VI Nearshore Pelagic Ecosystem 111

 6.1 Introductio111
 6.2 Water chemistry 112
 6.3 Time series parameters from Eco-Buoy 117
 6.4 Micro-phytoplanktodistributioiLembeh Strait 124
 6.5 Net phytoplanktopositioiNorth Sulawesi 137
 6.6 Zooplanktodiversity iNorth Sulawesi 142
 6.7 Conclusions 153
 References 154

Chapter VII Summary 158

 7.1 Mangrove ecosystem 158
 7.2 Coral ecosystem 159
 7.3 Seagrass ecosystem 160
 7.4 Nearshore pelagic ecosystem 160
 7.5 Comments and suggestions 161

Appendix I Species list 1 63

A.I-1 Species list of true mangrove and mangrove associatioiNorth Sulawesi 163
A.I-2 Species list of mangrove benthos iNorth Sulawesi 164
A.I-3 Species list of seagrass iNorth Sulawesi 167
A.I-4 Species list of seagrass benthos iNorth Sulawesi 167
A.I-5 Species list of seagrass fish iNorth Sulawesi 171
A.I-6 Species list of coral iLembeh Strait 173
A.I-7 Species list of sponge iLembeh Strait 179
A.I-8 Species list of reef fish iNorth Sulawesi 182
A.I-9 Species list of phytoplanktoand potentially harmful algae iLembeh Strait 190
A.I-10 Species list of zooplanktoiNorth Sulawesi 201
A.I-11 Species list of transitory planktoiNorth Sulawesi 212

Appendix II Atlas  214

  A.II-1 Atlas of momangrove iNorth Sulawesi 214
  A.II-2 Atlas of moseagrass iLembeh Strait 216
  A.II-3 Atlas of seagrass benthos iNorth Sulawesi 217
  A.II-4 Atlas of mocorals iLembeh Strait 219
  A.II-5 Atlas of mosponges iLembeh Strait 236
  A.II-6 Atlas of reef fishes iNorth Sualwesi 241
  A.II-7 Atlas of phytoplanktoiLembeh Strait 243
  A.II-8 Atlas of moZooplanktoiNorth Sulawesi 251
  Appendix III Working photos 255
  A.III-1 Conferences,discussions and others interior working photos 255
  A.III-2 Monitoring,sampling and others outside working photos 257

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