Wars of Using Water as Weapon and Related Hydraulic Engineering in Chinese History

中国历代以水代兵及其水利工程
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Author: Yan Yuanliang
Language: Chinese with English summary
ISBN/ISSN: 9787522606002
Published on: 2022-03
Soft Cover

This book discusses the concept of using water as weapon and using water to substitute for soldier, as well as the theories and expounds of using water as weapon from the ancient books on the art of war.  Based on a great deal of studying on literature and data of historical wars, the book deals with about two hundred important historical events relating to offensive wars using water as weapon, and defensive wars using water to substitute for soldier in Chinese history from legendary age, about 3,000 B.C, to 1949. The background, process, result, engineering construction and significance in the history of each war were introduced as possible as detail. The book also introduces ten types of offensive battles by using water as weapon as following: inundating farmland, flooding city by diverting water, deliberate breaking dike or damming river to obstruct enemy, cut off water supply, poisoning in water, attacking enemy when crossing a river, flooding enemy crossing river by breaking dammed river water, attacking enemy by seizing opportunity of flooding, flooding enemy’s camp and breaking water to flash enemy.
 
In addition, the book focus on studying defensive measures by constructing hydraulic engineering to defend against enemy and using nature water to help defensing, , their applications in the frontier guarding, city and national defense in Chinese history. 
 
In the end of the book, chronicle events of using water to substitute for weapons and soldiers in Chinese history in English, international water conflict events in history, and the stories of using water as weapon described in Chinese classical novels are attached. This is the first monograph to study using water as weapon in China. It can be used as references to researchers from the subjects of history, history of war, history of water and other related researchers.  


Chapter 1 Introduction 
 
     Section 1   Concept and Theory of Using Water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier
          1.1.1.  Basic Implication of using water to substitute for weapon and soldier  
          1.1.2 .Theory and explanation of offensive wars of using water as weapon
                      1.1.2.1. 《Lost Book of Zhou》recorded the earliest wars using water as weapon
                      1.1.2.2. Discussions of offensive war using water as weapon in the book 《The Arts of  War》
                      1.1.2.3. Discussions of war using water as weapon in the books 《Tai Bai Yin Jing》and 《Wu Jing Zong Yao》
                      1.1.2.4. Discussions of water war in the book 《Hu Qian Jing》
           1.1.3. Thoughts of preparation against inundation and theories of defending by water
                     1.1.3.1 Thought of Preparation against inundation and the theory against city attacking by water
                     1.1.3.2. Defending City by using water substitute for soldiers
                     1.1.3.3 .Preparations for Water in marching and camping 
                     1.1.3.4 .Utilization of the natural waters
      
       Section 2 .General situation of wars using water to substitute for weapon and soldier in Chinese history 
             1.2.1. Major Modes of wars using water to substitute for weapon and soldier  
                     1.2.1.1.Major Modes of using water as weapon of offensive battle
                     1.2.1.2. A preliminary statistics of events using water as weapon in Chinese history
                     1.2.1.3. Major Modes of using water to substitute for soldier in the defensive battle 
             1.2.2. Conditions to carry out offensive battle by water
             1.2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of offensive battle by water  
             1.2.4. Epochal and regional characteristics of using water to substitute for weapon and soldier.
       Section 3 Related Discussions about wars using water to substitute for weapon and soldier
              1.3.1. Wars of using water as weapon and deliberate flood disasters
              1.3.2. Wars of using water as weapon and Wars by Navy
              1.3.3. Wars of using water to Substitute for weapon and soldier and City flood control 
              1.3.4. Wars of using water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier and water projects 
        References
Chapter 2. Period of Prehistory to West Zhou: Origin of Wars Using Water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier
       Section 1. The wars using water as a weapon in the legendary age 
             2.1.1. Attacking enemy by means of water in the battle of Zhuolu 
                      2.1.1.1. Flood war between Huang Di and Chi You.  
                      2.1.1.2. Description of water wars in Han stone relief and “Myth of Chiyou”of Miao  people
                      2.1.1.3. Yinglong dragon is the incarnation of water project like dike and weir in the earlier  historical period
             2.1.2. The historical facts of wars using water as weapon by Gong Gong  
                      2.1.2.1. The wars and flood disasters initiated by Gong Gong 
                      2.1.2.2. Building dams and dikes in many rivers, excavating down high hill and heaping up  earth to harm the land under heaven.
                      2.1.2.3. Gong Gong bumped against mountain Buzhou with fury 
                      2.1.2.4. Evoking floods to inundate the area of Kong Sang.
             2.1.3. Achievements of Gong Gong in Hydraulic Engineering 
     Section 2 Utilization of water in defending system in prehistory
            2.2.1. Settlements defended by surrounding moats  
            2.2.2. Utilization of Natural Waters 
            2.2.3. Liang Zhu water city
            2.2.4. Water activities of humankind in early state and origin of Chinese civilization
     Section 3 Defense by surrounding moats and records of using water as weapon in Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties 
           2.3.1. Settlements defended by surrounding moat in Xia dynasty
           2.3.2. Ancient city defended by surrounding moat in Shang dynasty 
           2.3.3. Defending by water in the West Zhou dynasty 
           2.3.4. Offensive battle of using water as a weapon recorded in early literatures
           References
Chapter 3. The Period of Spring-Autumn and Warring States:
                   the First Climax of Wars Using Water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier  
     Section 1. Offensive battles by Water lunched by State Chu 
           3.1.1.  Banking and damming two rivers 
                      3.1.1.1. The historical background and process of Banking and damming two rivers. 
                      3.1.1.2. Hydraulic achievements of Banking and damming two rivers
                      3.1.1.3. Banking and Damming two rivers and Zhaoling Treaty of alliance
                      3.1.1.4. Banking and Damming two rivers and water Treaty of alliance
            3.1.2. Sun Shu’ao blocked a river in Qisi to flood land of Yulou area
            3.1.3. The army of State Chu diverted water from the Yellow River to flood outside of city Chang Yuan
     Section 2 Wu Zixu and the offensive battles of using water as weapon of State Wu 
            3.2.1. The Battle of vanquishing Xu by State Wu 
            3.2.2. Flooding city Jinan 
            3.2.3. Wu Zixu and Hydraulic Engineering of State Wu
            3.2.4. The theory of water wars of Wu Zixu
      Section 3. Epochal offensive battle of using water as a weapon: The Battle of Jinyang  
            3.3.1. Background of the battle of Jinyang
            3.3.2. The process of the battle of Jinyang 
            3.3.3. Hydraulic engineering constructed in the battle of Jinyang 
            3.3.4. Historical significance of the battle of Jinyang
   
      Section 4. State Wei suffered flood disasters 
             3.4.1. Geographical Situation of Suffering Offensive Floods of State Wei
             3.4.2. State Wei rescued Shan, closing breach at Jixikou 
             3.4.3. State Qin attacked city Daliang by water and Subjugated Wei 
                     3.4.3.1 The war situation before attacking Daliang by water 
                     3.4.3.2. The route and way of attacking Daliang city by water 
                     3.4.3.2. River and lake system and hydraulic engineering around city Daliang
       Section 5. Diverting water to surround Hao, wearing dress of Hu people and shooting on horse,
                        as well as offensive battles using water as weapon of state Zhao
             3.5.1. State Zhongshan diverted water to surround city Hao
             3.5.2. State Zhao burst the bank of the Yellow River to flood the army of state Qi and Wei 
             3.5.3. King Huiwen of Zhao broke the Yellow River to attack state Wei 
      Section 6.  Offensive battles using water as a weapon of State Qin 
            3.6.1.  The tradition of constructing military water infrastructure of state Qin  
            3.6.2.  The Battle of delaying: Qin poisoned the Jin River
            3.6.3.  The Battle of Yan and Yin: Baiqi diverted water to flood Yan 
                  3.6.3.1. Baiqi invaded state Chu
                  3.6.3.2. Records and Related issues
                  3.6.3.3. A study on the mode of flooding city  
                  3.6.3.4. The irrigation effects of Baiqi Canal
            3.6.4. Flooding City Daliang and Perishing State Wei 
      Section 7. City Defense by means of water in the period of Spring and Autumn
            3.7.1.  Defending by means of natural waters and water infrastructures
            3.7.2.  Defending Zhenghan old city and state Han by means of water
            3.7.3.  State Lu dredged Zhu river and defense of old city of state Lu by water projects 
            3.7.4.  Water defense of Linzhi, the capital of state Qi, and city Pingyin 
            3.7.5.  Defending by water infrastructures of state Wu
            3.7.6   City Jinan, the capital of state Chu, defended by water infrastructures 
            3.7.7.  The city Yong, capital of state Qin, used water to defend against enemy    
      Section 8   The dike construction and their effects on the war 
             3.8.1.  The origin of dike construction in prehistorical time
             3.8.2.  The development of dike construction in Shang and Zhou dynasties. 
             3.8.3.  Dike and dam played the role in the wars one: building dike to block water, diverting river Water to flood neighbor states
             3.8.4.  Dike and dam played the role in the wars two: acting as protective barrier
             References
Chapter 4. Period of Qin, Han and Three Kingdoms: Continuation of
                   Wars Using Water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier 
     Section 1  Wars of using water as weapon in the Qin and Han dynasties 
           4.1.1.  The army of Qin guarded Puyang by drawing water from the Yellow river 
           4.1.2.  King of Han attacked city Feiqiu by using water as a weapon  
           4.1.3.  The Art of using water as a weapon in the battle of Weishui 
           4.1.4.   Luanbu and Liji drew water to flood city Handan
           4.1.5.   Wei Xiao attacked city Lueyang and Zhiyuan Duo attacked city Xian Mei by water.
           4.1.6.   Cen Peng attacked city Xicheng by water
           4.1.7.   Emperor Guangwu did not use water as a weapon to attack enemy 
           4.1.8.   Chen Qiu broke the dike conversely to guard city Lingling 
           4.1.9.   Dongzuo crossed a river below weir 
           4.1.10. Yuan Shao attacked East Wuyang city by surrounding water 
     
    Section 2. Cao Cao and the wars using water as weapon during the three kingdom period 
          4.2.1.  Cao Cao who was good at using water in the wars 
          4.2.2.  Attacking city Xiangyi by surrounding water
          4.2.3.  Attacking city Xiapi by water 
          4.2.4.  Diverting Zhang river to surround the city Ye 
          4.2.5.  Guan Yu attacked Yu Jing by seizing opportunity of flood.  
          4.2.6.  The Battle of Quebei :Founght for an Irrigation Engineering
    Section 3. Three important water projects for national defense of East Wu 
          4.3.1.  Defense by water, the basic national policy of state East Wu 
          4.3.2.  Building forts in the banks of Ruxu River 
          4.3.3.  Building Dongxing Dike to back up lake 
          4.3.4.  Constructing a weir in Tu river to inundate north road 
    Section 4. Battles for source of water supply
          4.4.1. Chenli Cut off water supply to pacify West Yi nationality 
          4.4.2. Li Guangli cut off water supply of city Ershi
          4.4.3. Geng Gong dug wells in Shure City
          4.4.4. Ma Shu lost Jietin since water supply was cut off  
     References
Chapter  5.  Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties:  The Second
                    Climax  of  Wars Using Water  to Substitute for Weapon  and Soldier
       
     Section 1  Wars using water as weapon in the Western Jin and Eastern Jin dynasties
           5.1.1.  Lukang build a big weir to back up water and inundate even land, rebels obstructed 
           5.1.2.  Zhang Fang destructed Qianjin Weir, all water hammers dried up
           5.1.3.  Liu Yao attacked city Jinyong, destructing Qianjin Weir again 
           5.1.4.  Attacking city Guanggu by damming Wulong valley three times  
           5.1.5.  Murong Chui diverted Zhang river to flood city Ye
           5.1.6.  Juqu Mengxun attacked city Xijun by water 
           5.1.7.  Juqu Mengxun attacked city Dun Huang by water
    Section 2.  Wars using water as a weapon during Liu Song, South Qi and South Liang period
           5.2.1.  Destructing dams Pogang,Bogang and Fangshan to resist east army  
           5.2.2.  Yuan Chongzu built dam at Longju and using water as weapon cleverly
           5.2.3.  Damming at East Pass to inundate the district south of Huai River  
           5.2.4.  Wei Rui flooded city Hefei by damming
           5.2.5.  Suyu weir and Shuyu city 
           5.2.6.  Cao Jingzong and Cao Yizong attacked Jingzhou by water 
           5.2.7.  Ge Rong built long dike around city and dammed river to flood city Xindu 
           5.2.8.  Damming in Hanshan twice and the Battle of Hanshan Weir  
           5.2.9.  Houjing Flooded Taicheng of Jiankang 
      Section 3. Emperor Wu Xiao Yan of Liang and the Whole story of Building Fushan Weir 
             5.3.1. The Emperor Wu Xiaoyan of Liang and The historical background of building Fushan Weir 
             5.3.2. Nursery rhyme and the strategic targets of Fushan Wei 
             5.3.3. The issue about building time of Fushan Weir 
             5.3.4. Jingshan Weir and related issues
             5.3.5. Fushan Weir and its achievements in hydraulic engineering
             5.3.6. The Battles about Fushan Weir and Jingshan Weir 
             5.3.7. The Failure of Fushan Weir and It’s Building second time. 
             5.3.8. The Effects and Remains of Fushan Weir
      Section 4.  Offensive battles of using water as weapon in South Chen and East Wei, West Wei as 
                        Well as North Qi, North Zhou 
            5.4.1.  Lou Zhao attacked city Xiaqiu by water 
            5.4.2.  Yuwen Tai flooded city Lingzhou 
            5.4.3.  The Army of East Wei attacked Changshe city by water 
            5.4.4.  Wu Mingche and Cheng Wenji and their battles using water as weapon 
            5.4.5.  Water overflow Taozhi Ridge- a masterpiece of attacking by water in the mountain terrain
            5.4.6.  Army of South Chen flooded city Jiang Ling Twice 
            5.4.7.  Wu Mingche and Cheng Wenji attacked city Shouyang by water 
            5.4.8.  Wu Mingche and Cheng Wenji attacked city Pengcheng by water 
            5.4.9.  Wang Qian attacked city Lizhou by water 
     Section 5  Fighting for source of water supply 
           5.5.1.  Juqu Mengsun cut off water supply canal of Ledu city
           5.5.2.  Fight for water supply between Fu Jian and Yao Zhang in the fort Zhaoshi 
           5.5.3.  The army of Wei fight for fort Hulao by occupying well 
           5.5.4.  Ho-lien Bobo forced Wang xi surrendered by cutting his water supply 
           5.5.5.  Yao Xing Fought for sources of water with the king Fudeng of Former Qin  
      References
Chapter  6  Period of Sui and Tang Dynasties: The Decline of Wars Using
                   Water to Substitute for Weapon and Soldier 
      Section 1  How to attack by Water and hydraulic issues in the battle of Ming River
            6.1.1.  Similarities and differences of historical records
            6.1.2.  The Imagine of Attacking enemy crossing river and miscarried by Li Shimin 
            6.1.3.  Battlefield and weir site 
            6.1.4.  Weir breach and floods
            6.1.5.  Conclusions 
     Section 2  Offensive battles by Water during An-Shi Rebellion and Mid-Late of Tang Dynasty 
           6.2.1.  Nine provincial governors besieged city Ye with water 
                 6.2.1.1. Process of the battle and Hydraulic Engineering
                 6.2.1.2. Diverting Zhang river or Anyang river to flood city Ye
                 6.2.1.3. The description of battle of the city Ye in the poetry works of Du Fu 
           6.2.2.  Lixian broke the dike of the Yellow River 
           6.2.3.  Li Guangbi attacked city Huaizhou by water 
           6.2.4.  Cutting off path for transporting foods and the alliance of four kings
           6.2.5.  Li Sheng attacked city Qing Yuan by water
           6.2.6.  Zhu Tao surrounded Beizhou by water 
           6.2.7.  Ma Sui diverted Jin River to strengthen the defense of city Jin Yang 
           6.2.8.  Li Xilie attacked city Ningling by water 
           6.2.9.  Wang Qinxiu attacked city Mingzhou with water
           6.2.10. Wang Zhixing attacked Lizhou city by water
           6.2.11. Qiu Fu flooded government army of Tang regime 
Section 3 Offensive battles using water as weapon in the end of Tang dynasty and Five Dynasties 
6.3.1. The army of Huang Chao diverted water to flood city Xing Ping 
6.3.2. Yang Xingmi defeated Sun Ru by seizing opportunity of rainy days and floods.
6.3.3. Dinghui Flooded city Suzhou 
6.3.4. Zhu Xuan diverted water to form a deep moat for self-defense
6.3.5. The battle of Qingkou: Yang Xingmi flooded the camps of Bian army.  
6.3.6. Gu Quanwu attacked city Kun Shan by water 
6.3.7. Xie Yanzhang burst the bank of the Yellow River to resist enemy. 
6.3.8. The army of state Jin attacked Zhenzhou city by water twice
6.3.9. Emperor guarding water or nation perishing water: Duan Yi broke the Yellow River 
Section 4. Examples of attacking enemy who were crossing river during Spring-Autumn to 
Tang Dynasty and afterwards
6.4.1. The Battle of Hong: King Xiang of Song was defeated 
6.4.2. Yang Chu Fu retreated at Di River 
6.4.3. Army of Wu attacked army of Chu when they crossed half of Qingfa River 
6.4.4. King of Han lured Cao Jiu to cross a river and then attacked   
6.4.5. Liu Bei saw through the stratagem of luring to cross a river. 
6.4.6. Gongsun Zang attacked Yellow army when they were crossing a river  
6.4.7. Zhong You attacked Guo Yuan when his army was crossing a rive 
6.4.8. Yuwen Shu was attacked when his army was crossing a river on the back home way of
expedition to Korea 
6.4.9. Xue Wanjun attacked Dou Jiande when his army was crossing a river.
6.4.10. Shi Baoxing attacked the West Xia army when they were crossing a river 
6.4.11. Battles of attacking enemy when they were crossing river in the Tang Dynasty and 
later on
Section 5. Camp, water supply and blocking road
6.5.1. Helou Zigan occupied the source of water and encamped
6.5.2. The government army of Tang regime cut off the water supply of city Chang An 
6.5.3. Pei Xingjian moved camps to avoid floods
6.5.4. Military camps of Tang regime suffered from mountain floods. 
6.5.5. Military camps of Huang Chao were washed by floods 
6.5.6. Jiao Lu broke the Bian River to cut off road
6.5.7. Li Jing attacked enemy by seizing opportunity of floods  
References 
Chapter 7. Period of Song, Liao Jin and Yuan Dynasties:  The 
           Transformation of Wars Using Water  to Substitute for
Weapon and Soldier
Section 1.The battles of attacking city using water as weapon in the Song and Yuan Dynasties 
7.1.1. Zhao Kuanyan attacked city Jin Yang by water 
7.1.2. Genghis Khan attacked city Zhong Xing by water 
7.1.3. Xia Gui attacked Zheng Yang city by water 
7.1.4.“Memorials of Pacifying State Yan”suggested to break river to resist enemy
7.1.5. Army of Yuan regime attacked Yi Du city by water
Section 2. Strategies of defending national border by water and their practices in the Song dynasty
   7.2.1. Dredging Hulu River to protect against army of Qidan people
   7.2.2. Lakes, block fields and paddy fields constructed by the North Song regime at Hebei:
“The great water wall” for defending against army of Liao 
7.2.2.1. The plan and found of water wall before Chanyuan Treaty 
7.2.2.2. Continuation and expansion of water wall after Chanyuan Treaty
7.2.2.3. Management and went bad of the water wall since deposition of sediment 
7.2.2.4. The effects and significances of the water wall
7.2.3. The Yellow river control work led by the thought of defending against army of Liao
regime 
7.2.4. The construction of paddy field to resist war horse of Liao army in the South Song
Dynasty
7.5.5. The conception of changing the course of the Yellow River flowed northwards to resist
 Mongolian army 
Section 3 Battles of defending cities by water in the wars between Song and Jin, Song and
Mongolia, Mongolia and Jin regimes
  7.3.1. The transition and effects of resisting enemy of three lakes at Jingzhou 
     7.3.1.1. That Wang Chang crossed water whether crossing a lake or crossing a river
 7.3.1.2. The early stage of three lakes
     7.3.1.3. The start of constructing three lakes in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
 7.3.1.4. Recovery and expanding of three lakes in the South Song Dynasty
7.3.2. The Battles of guarding cities by water 
     7.3.2.1. Flooding enemy- A wonderful idea to guard Bianliang city
7.3.2.2. Using water entrenched defense of city Mingzhou
7.3.2.3. Defending Zhizhou city by water
7.3.2.4. Water surrounded Chuzhou  
     7.3.2.5 Using water to stabilizing Mingzhou
7.3.2.6 Water encircling Pizhou city
7.3.2.7.Water embracing Dangshan city
7.3.2.8. Defending city Shashi by water
7.3.2.9. Defending Yangzhou city by water 
     7.3.2.10. Defending Xiaogan by moats
7.3.2.11. Defending Caozhou relied on water of lake Cai
7.3.3. Relying on river and moats to grow defense effectiveness in the battle of Xiangyang 
7.3.4. Taking advantage of water to set up dangerous terrain in the battle of defending
 city Jingjiang 
   7.3.5. Double moats resisted enemy in the battle of guarding city De An 
Section 4. Burst the bank of the Yellow River deliberately
7.4.1 Du Chong broke the Yellow River to resist the army of Jin regime
7.4.1.1. The war situation and the river bed condition before breaking the river 
7.4.1.2. Breaking site
7.4.1.2. Flooding routs 
      7.4.1.4. Military significance
7.4.1.5. Flood disasters and effects
7.4.2. Breaking Duandi dike to guard the capital city 
7.4.3. The city Gui De was more stable on the contrary because of breaking the Yellow river 
7.4.5. Breaking the Yellow River at Cun Jindian
Section 5. Flooding camp, cutting off road, releasing water to attack enemy, fighting for water supply
7.5.1. An Ziluo broke a river to flood Yuan Hao’s army
7.5.2. The army of West Xia released water from Seven-Class Canal to inundate camps of Song’s army in the battle of Lingzhou  
7.5.3. The Battle of Yongle and water source of Yong Le fort 
7.5.4. Fight for source of water in the battles between Song and West Xia regimes 
7.5.5. Fight for source of water in the battles between Song and Jin, Song and Mongolia
7.5.6. Poisoning river water 
7.5.7. Attacking each other by bursting water between the army of Song and rebels at Taiping
 Prefecture 
7.5.8. Breaking dam to strike enemy who was crossing a river
7.5.9. Zhao Jiuling’s report of breaking the Huai River got the enemy withdrew 
7.5.10. The Army of Jin dammed Wen River to flood the camp of Song army
7.5.11. The army of Song released lake water to block pursuing troop 
7.5.12. Hydraulic Engineering assisted to defend cities
7.5.13. The battles of breaking reservoirs between the armies of Song and Jin
7.5.14. The army of Mongolian Baizhu broke the dike in the night
Section 6 Moat construction in the Song dynasty 
7.6.1. Depth and Width increased in the Song dynasty 
7.6.2. Double Moats Set Up 
7.6.3. Moat construction of key defended cities
References
Chapter 8 Period of Ming and Qing Dynasties as well as Modern Times: 
          Development of Wars Using Water to Substitute for Weapon and
          Soldier under the new historical conditions  
Section 1.The Events Using water as weapon In the Ming and Qing Dynasties 
8.1.1. Hu Dahai captured Weir to flood Lvzhen conversely
   8.1.2. King of Liang diverted water to flood army of Ming regime 
   8.1.3. The army of Wala raced to control source of water In the Tumu Crisis 
   8.1.4. Attacking Jinan by building dike to store water
   8.1.5. A Victory of stopping a plan to break big dam
   8.1.6. A suggestion of Building weir by Hong Zhong
   8.1.7. Flooding Ningxia city to pacify Bobai rebels
   8.1.8. Nur Ha Che flooded army of Ming regime in the battle of Saer Hu
   8.1.9. Diverting water from the Yellow River to flood Yu Yuan
   8.1.10. Zheng Chenggong attacked Zhangzhou by water 
   8.1.11. Huo Jizhan flooded camp of Qing’s army in the battle of black river
Section 2. A study of the Historical Fact of Flooding Kaifeng city in the end of Ming Dynasty: 
Crazily use water as weapon  
8.2.1. A review of dike breach of the Yellow River at Kaifeng in the Ming Dynasty 
8.2.2. Breaking the Yellow River by Li Zicheng
8.2.3. Breaking the Yellow River by government army of Ming regime 
8.2.4. The Yellow River burst greatly in September (lunar calendar) 
8.2.4.1. About breaking at Zhu Jiazhai
8.2.4.2. About breaking at Ma Jiakou
      8.2.4.3. Was the dike breach a natural disaster?  
8.2.5. The Historical Facts around Inundating Kaifeng 
      8.2.5.1. Floods and Disaster situations 
8.2.5.2. Humanity Depravation, an astounding calamity 
      8.2.5.3. Investigations and arguments about inundating Kaifeng in the Ming regime 
8.2.6. Conclusions 
Section 3. Events using water as weapon in modern times 
8.3.1. Sengge Rinchen used water as weapon and the failure of northern expeditionary army
of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
8.3.1.1. Northern expeditionary army of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was stopped by water 
at Tianjin
8.3.1.2. Army of Qing surrounded Lianzhen Town by Water
8.3.1.3. Army of Qing Regiem inundated Feng Guantun Town 
8.3.2. Flooding Shuiyang city: The last Time to attack city by water 
8.3.3. The tactic of army of Qing to prevent river to encircle and suppress Army Nian 
8.3.3.1. Defense line established by the Yellow River, Huai River, great canal and Jialu River
8.3.3.2. Defense line established by 
8.3.3.3. Defense line established by Great Canal and Liutang River
8.3.3.4. Defense line established by the Yellow River-Great Canal-Jian River
8.3.3.5.Defense line established by the Great Canal-Ma Jia River and Tuhai River-The
Yellow River
8.3.3.6. River god bless or intentional dike breach
8.3.4. The fight between Hui army broke canal and Qing army against in the battle of Jinji Fort
8.3.4.1. besiege government army relying on canal
8.3.4.2 breaking canal, digging moat and building wall to resist goveronment army 
8.3.3.3 Qing army flooded camp of Hui army 
8.3.4.4. Fighting for power of water controlling 
8.3.4.5. Bai Yanhu dammed Kaidu River to resist army of Qing
8.3.5. Wu Peifu flooded army of Hunan in the battle between Warlords Hunan and Zhi Li 
8.3.6. The Third Counter against "Encirclement and Suppression" :The Kuomintang army 
flooded Hunan-west Hubei Soviet Area 
8.3.7. Wuyuan great victory: Fu Zuoyi released water to block enemy
8.3.8. Fengman power plant open gate to release water 
8.3.9. Historical facts of guarding Jingjiang dike during the Battle of crossing the Yangtze River 
8.3.10. Other events using water as weapon 
Section 4 Destructing embankment of the Yellow River at Huayuankou: The Most Calamitous
Event of Using Water as weapon in History 
8.4.1. The Process of brewing the dike broke
      8.4.1.1. Military situation before dike burst
8.4.1.2. Suggestions of defending enemy using the Yellow River course
8.4.1.3.Suggestions of resisting enemy by the old Yellow River course of Ming and Qing
      dynasties
8.4.1.4.Suggestions of destructing embankment nearby Zhengzhou and Kaifeng
8.4.1.5.The last Decision of breaking embankment 
8.4.1.6.Destructing embankment at Zhao kou 
8.4.1.7.Destructing embankment at Hua Yuankou 
8.4.2. Floods, Disasters and effectiveness after bank burst
8.4.2.1. Flooded areas and disaster situation
8.4.2.2. Sedimentation on the ground surface in the flooding area
8.4.2.3. River changes in the flooding area
8.4.2.4. Destruction to the cities and rural areas 
8.4.2.5. Waterlogging, drought and saline-alkali caused by floods of the Yellow River
8.4.3. A discussion of military significance of bank breaking at Huayuankou 
8.4.3.1. Broadening dike breach to resist enemy
8.4.3.2. Keep and expand flooding area 
8.4.3.3. Building dikes along the new river
8.4.3.4. Bank bursting at the new river
8.4.3.5. Effects on the Japanese troop
8.4.3.6. Evaluation of the military significance of bank breaking at Huayuankou
Section 5. The Yellow River Strategy of The Kuomintang army and its failure around closing breach at Huayuankou
8.5.1. Closing the dike breach at Huayuankou: The Kuomintang planned to flood and separate
liberated areas
   8.5.2. Hard negotiations: The Communist Party insisted reasonable opinions
   8.5.3. Diverting the Yellow River to original way: Chiang Kaishek designed“The Yellow River
Strategy”
   8.5.4. Forced crossing The Yellow River: The Failure of The Kuomintang using water as weapon 
   8.5.5. The Battle of Southwest Shandong: Chiang Kaishek attempted to use water as weapon
again
References 
Appendix 1. Chronicle Events Using Water Substitute for Weapons and Soldiers in Chinese 
History (English)
Appendix 2. Wars using water as weapon in ancient world history
Appendix 3. Wars using water as weapon in modern world history
Appendix 4. The wars using water as weapon described in the classic novels and historical novels 
4.1.Water wars described in the ancient classic novel 《Outlaws of the Marsh》 
4.2.  A battle using Water as weapon described in the novel 《Dang Kou Zhi》
4.3. Offensive battles using Water as weapon described in the ancient classic novel Three Kingdoms 
4.4. Offensive battles using Water as weapon described in the historical novel Stories 
from the Warring States
4.5.The battle that Yue Fei defeated army of Jin using Water as weapon described by
 the novel General Yue Fei 
4.6. A story that Yang Ye released water to flood the Army of North Zhou described by 
the novel 《Fei Long Quan Zhuan》
4.7. A series struck by Xu Da released water described in the novel 《Heroic
biography》

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