Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives

表面活性剂湍流减阻

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Author: Yang Fengchen
Language: English
ISBN/ISSN: 9787040348156
Published on: 2012-01
Hardcover

 Preface
Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Surfactant Solution
1.2.1 Anionic Surfactant
1.2.2 Cationic Surfactant
1.2.3 Nonionic Surfactant
1.2.4 Amphoteric Surfactant
1.2.5 Zwitterionic Surfactant
1.3 Mechanism and Theory of Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives
1.3.1 Explanations of the Turbulent DR Mechanism from the Viewpoint of Microstructures
1.3.2 Explanations of the Turbulent DR Mechanism from the Viewpoint of the Physics of Turbulence
1.4 Application Techniques of Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives
1.4.1 Heat Transfer Reduction of Surfactant Drag-reducing Flow
1.4.2 Diameter Effect of Surfactant Drag-reducing Flow
1.4.3 Toxic Effect of Cationic Surfactant Solution
1.4.4 Chemical Stability of Surfactant Solution
1.4.5 Corrosion of Surfactant Solution
References
Drag Reduction and Heat Transfer Reduction Characteristics of
Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution Flow
2.1 Fundamental Concepts of Turbulent Drag Reduction
2.2 Characteristics of Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives and Its
Influencing Factors
2.2.1 Characteristics of Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives
2.2.2 Influencing Factors of Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives
2.3 The Diameter Effect of Surfactant Drag-reducing Flow and Scale-up Methods
2.3.1 The Diameter Effect and Its Influence
2.3.2 Scale-up Methods
2.3.3 Evaluation of Different Scale-up Methods
2.4 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Drag-reducing Surfactant Solution Flow and Its Enhancement Methods
2.4.1 Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Drag-reducing Surfactant Solution Flow
2.4.2 Heat Transfer Enhancement Methods for Drag-reducing Surfactant Solution Flows
References
3 Turbulence Structures in Drag-Reducing Surfactant Solution Flow
3.1 Measurement Techniques for Turbulence Structures in Drag-Reducing Flow
3.1.1 Laser Doppler Velocimetry
3.1.2 PIV
3.2 Statistical Characteristics of Velocity and Temperature Fields in Drag-reducing Flow
3.2.1 Distribution of Averaged Quantities
3.2.2 Distribution of Fluctuation Intensities
3.2.3 Correlation Analyses of Fluctuating Quantities
3.2.4 Spectrum Analyses of Fluctuating Quantities
3.3 Characteristics of Turbulent Vortex Structures in Drag-reducing Flow
3.3.1 Identification Method of Turbulent Vortex by Swirling Strength
3.3.2 Distribution Characteristics of Turbulent Vortex in the x-y Plane
3.3.3 Distribution Characteristics of Turbulent Vortex in the y-z Plane
3.3.4 Distribution Characteristics of Turbulent Vortex in the x-z Plane
3.4 Reynolds Shear Stress and Wall-Normal Turbulent Heat Flux References
4 Numerical Simulation of Surfactant Drag Reduction
4.1 Direct Numerical Simulation of Drag-reducing Flow
4.1.1 A Mathematical Model of Drag-reducing Flow
4.1.2 The DNS Method of Drag-reducing Flow
4.2 RANS of Drag-reducing Flow
4.3 Governing Equation and DNS Method of Drag-reducing Flow
4.3.1 Governing Equation
4.3.2 Numerical Method
4.4 DNS Results and Discussion for Drag-reducing Flow and Heat Transfer
4.4.1 The Overall Study on Surfactant Drag Reduction and Heat Transfer by DNS
4.4.2 The Rheological Parameter Effect of DNS on Surfactant Drag Reduction
4.4.3 DNS with the Bilayer Model of Flows with Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Coexistence
4.5 Conclusion and Future Work
References
Microstructures and Rheological Properties of Surfactant Solution
5.1 Microstructures in Surfactant Solution and Its Visualization Methods
5.1.1 Microstrnctures in Surfactant Solution
5.1.2 Visualization Methods for Microstrnctures in Surfactant Solution
5.2 Rheology and Measurement Methods of Surfactant Solution
5.2.1 Rheological Parameters
5.2.2 Measurement Method of Rheological Parameters
5.2.3 Rheological Characteristics of Dilute Drag-reducing Surfactant Solution
5.3 Factors Affecting the Rheological Characteristics of Surfactant Solution
5.3.1 Surfactant Concentration
5.3.2 Temperature
5.3.3 Type of Surfactant
5.4 Characterization of Viscoelasticity of Drag-reducing Surfactant Solution by Using Free Surface Swirling Flow
5.5 Molecular and Brownian Dynamics Simulations of Surfactant Solution
5.5.1 Brief Introduction of Simulation Methods
5.5.2 Brownian Dynamics Simulation by Using a WK Potential
References
6 Application Techniques for Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives
6.1 Problems That Need to Be Solved in Engineering Applications
6.1.1 Influencing Factors of Drag-reducing Surfactant Additives on the Heat Transfer Performance of Heat Exchangers and Its Counter-measures
6.1.2 Influences of Drag-reducing Surfactant Additives on the Environment
6.1.3 Scale-up Problem
6.2 Separation Techniques for Surfactant Solution
6.2.1 Adsorption
6.2.2 Ultrafiltration
6.2.3 Reverse Osmosis
6.3 Drag Reduction Stability of Surfactant Solutions
6.3.1 Effect of Adsorption
6.3.2 Effects of Fe(OH)3
6.3.3 Effects of Cu(OH)2
6.3.4 Recovery of Drag Reduction
6.4 Applications of Surfactant Drag Reduction
6.4.1 Application of Surfactant to Hydronic Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems
6.4.2 Surfactant Selection in Actual Applications
References
Index  



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